What is Dyslexia?
According to the International Dyslexia Association, “dyslexia is a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relationship to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension, vocabulary growth, and background knowledge.” Moats, L.C., & Dakin, K.E (2012). Dyslexia basics. [Fact Sheet]. Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association
The mastery of skills required for reading, writing, and mathematics is normally distributed across the population. Approximately 80% of students will effectively learn to read, write, and compute, when provided daily instruction in the classroom. Students who do not respond to general education instruction should be provided with specific interventions to remediate academic skill deficits and progress should be monitored to determine whether appropriate growth is made with additional supports. Depending upon students’ response to interventions, specialized instruction through an IEP may not be necessary. If a student does not demonstrate an adequate rate of growth in response to intervention, this may indicate the need for an IEP Team to conduct a comprehensive evaluation to determine if an educational disability exists, and whether or not specialized instruction or accommodations are required for the student to receive FAPE.
Students with Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, and Dyscalculia may fall within this group of struggling learners. However, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Dysgraphia are not their own disability categories, but rather examples of a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) under IDEA. Thus, having a diagnosis of Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, or Dysgraphia does not automatically qualify a student for services. The severity of the academic difficulty and their response to interventions, will determine which tier of support will be most appropriate, rather than the specific diagnosis. If a student with Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, or Dysgraphia is demonstrating significant academic deficits and is not responding adequately to intervention, then the IEP team should conduct a comprehensive evaluation to determine that the student meets criteria for one of the disability categories under the IDEA, and determine whether the student requires specialized instruction in order to meet their unique needs.
CCPS Disclaimer - by clicking the links below, you will be leaving the CCPS website
International Dyslexia Association
Defines Dyslexia and Dysgraphia and includes resources for families, including:
- Signs of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia
- Interesting Facts
Dysgraphia-/instruction/specialeducation/community/Documents/Understanding Dysgraphia (2).pdf
Maryland Technical Assistance Bulletin
Frequently Asked Questions and corresponding answers focused on Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and Dysgraphia
Specific Learning Disability & Supplement (Focus On: Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Dysgraphia)
The Role of the School Psychologist in the Identification of Dyslexia, Dysgraphia and Dyscalculia
A guide of best practices for school psychologists and IEP teams in identifying an SLD, and disabilities that underlie an SLD such as Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and Dysgraphia
Role of the School Psychologist
Wilson Language Systems
Endorsed by International Dyslexia Association
Description of Tiered Reading Programs in Carroll County Public Schools
The link below provides a chart of Pre K-12 reading programs used in CCPS. This chart is not exhaustive.
/instruction/specialeducation/community/Documents/Description of Tiered Reading Programs.pdf
CCPS Academic Resources for Parents
Elementary English Language Arts-https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/elementary/ila/parents/Pages/ResourcesForParents.aspx
Middle School English Language Arts - https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/middle/rla/Pages/default.aspx
Middle School Secondary Math - https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/secondary/math/Pages/default.aspx
High School English - https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/secondary/english_foreignlang/Pages/default.aspx
High School Math - https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/secondary/math/Pages/default.aspx
MD College and Career Readiness Standards
If you have additional questions regarding dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia or the information on this webpage, please contact administration or the special education department at your local school.
**Please be aware this document may be updated frequently.