What is Dyslexia?

According to the International Dyslexia Association, “dyslexia is a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relationship to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension, vocabulary growth, and background knowledge.”  Moats, L.C., & Dakin, K.E (2012). Dyslexia basics. [Fact Sheet].  Baltimore, MD: International Dyslexia Association


The mastery of skills required for reading, writing, and mathematics is normally distributed across the population.  Approximately 80% of students will effectively learn to read, write, and compute, when provided daily instruction in the classroom. Students who do not respond to general education instruction should be provided with specific interventions to remediate academic skill deficits and progress should be monitored to determine whether appropriate growth is made with additional supports. Depending upon students’ response to interventions, specialized instruction through an IEP may not be necessary. If a student does not demonstrate an adequate rate of growth in response to intervention, this may indicate the need for an IEP Team to conduct a comprehensive evaluation to determine if an educational disability exists, and whether or not specialized instruction or accommodations are required for the student to receive FAPE.

Students with Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, and Dyscalculia may fall within this group of struggling learners. However, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Dysgraphia are not their own disability categories, but rather examples of a Specific Learning Disability (SLD) under IDEA.  Thus, having a diagnosis of Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, or Dysgraphia does not automatically qualify a student for services. The severity of the academic difficulty and their response to interventions, will determine which tier of support will be most appropriate, rather than the specific diagnosis. If a student with Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, or Dysgraphia is demonstrating significant academic deficits and is not responding adequately to intervention, then the IEP team should conduct a comprehensive evaluation to determine that the student meets criteria for one of the disability categories under the IDEA, and determine whether the student requires specialized instruction in order to meet their unique needs.



CCPS Disclaimer - by clicking the links below, you will be leaving the CCPS website


International Dyslexia Association

Defines Dyslexia and Dysgraphia and includes resources for families, including:

  • Signs of Dyslexia and Dysgraphia
  • Interesting Facts


Dysgraphia-/instruction/specialeducation/community/Documents/Understanding Dysgraphia (2).pdf



Maryland Technical Assistance Bulletin

Frequently Asked Questions and corresponding answers focused on Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and Dysgraphia               

Specific Learning Disability & Supplement (Focus On: Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, and Dysgraphia) 



Wilson Language Systems

Endorsed by International Dyslexia Association  


Wilson programs used in Carroll County Public Schools  



Description of Tiered Reading Programs in Carroll County Public Schools

The link below provides a chart of Pre K-12 reading programs used in CCPS.  This chart is not exhaustive. 

/instruction/specialeducation/community/Documents/Description of Tiered Reading Programs.pdf



CCPS Academic Resources for Parents

Elementary English Language Arts-https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/elementary/ila/parents/Pages/ResourcesForParents.aspx

Elementary Math-https://www.carrollk12.org/curriculum/elementary/mathematics


Middle School English Language Arts -  https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/middle/rla/Pages/default.aspx

Middle School Secondary Math - https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/secondary/math/Pages/default.aspx


High School English - https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/secondary/english_foreignlang/Pages/default.aspx

High School Math - https://www.carrollk12.org/instruction/curriculum/secondary/math/Pages/default.aspx



MD College and Career Readiness Standards




If you have additional questions regarding dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia or the information on this webpage, please contact administration or the special education department at your local school.

**Please be aware this document may be updated frequently.