During Unit 8, students will learn to write expressions to express a calculation, e.g., writing 2 x (8+7) to express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2.” They will also evaluate and interpret expressions, e.g., using their conceptual understanding of multiplication to interpret 3 x (18932 + 921) as being three times as large as 18932+ 921, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product. Students will extend their Grade 4 pattern work by working briefly with two numerical patterns that can be related and examining these relationships within sequences of ordered pairs and in the graphs in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane. Students will also extend their knowledge of the coordinate plane. They will connect ordered pairs of (whole number) coordinates to points on the grid, so that these coordinate pairs constitute numerical objects and ultimately can be operated upon as single mathematical entities. Students will solve mathematical and real-world problems using coordinates.
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Students need to:
- Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them.
- Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x-axis and x-coordinate, y-axis and y-coordinate).
- Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.
- Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.