Title 13A STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Subtitle 04 SPECIFIC SUBJECTS
Chapter 05 Education That is Multicultural
Authority: Education Article, §2-205(c) and (h), Annotated Code of Maryland
A. Assurance of success for all students in Maryland is dependent upon quality and equity in education, which empowers students to make decisions on important social and personal issues, and take action to help solve them. The intent of this chapter is to provide for local school systems' guidelines and goals for education that is multicultural, that will enable the school systems to provide curricula, instruction, staff development, and instructional resources that are multicultural while recognizing our common ground as a nation. These will enable students to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of cultural groups in the State, nation, and world.
B. Education that is multicultural is a continuous, integrated, multiethnic, multidisciplinary process for educating all students about diversity and commonality. Diversity factors include but are not limited to race, ethnicity, region, religion, gender, language, socioeconomic status, age, and individuals with disabilities. It encompasses curricular infusion and instructional strategies in all subject areas. Education that is multicultural prepares students to live, learn, interact, and work creatively in an interdependent global society by fostering mutual appreciation and respect. It is a process which is complemented by community and parent involvement in support of multicultural initiatives.
C. In studying other cultures, teachers may not imply that there are no universal values.
A. In this chapter, the following terms have the meanings indicated.
B. Terms Defined.
(1) "Bias" means a mental leaning or inclination, or partiality.
(2) "Commonality" means a sharing of common features, characteristics, or traits, or all of these.
(3) "Cultural groups" means groups that identify by the factors of race, ethnicity, region, religion, gender, language, socioeconomic status, age, or disability.
(4) "Cultural linguistic patterns" means the patterns of language unique to each cultural group.
(5) "Discrimination" means an act of exclusion prompted by prejudice.
(6) "Diversity" means differences based on, but not limited to race, ethnicity, region, religion, gender, language, socioeconomic status, age, and disability.
(7) "Ethnicity" means the classification or affiliation of any of the racial groups or national divisions of people.
(8) "Master plan" means the comprehensive plan required by Education Article, §5-401, Annotated Code of Maryland, that describes the goals, objectives, and strategies that will be used to improve student achievement and meet State performance standards and local performance standards in each segment of the student population.
(9) "Master plan annual update" means the annual plan update submitted by each local board for review and approval by the State Superintendent on or before October 15 of each year as required by Education Article, §5-401, Annotated Code of Maryland.
(10) "Pluralistic society" means the existence within a nation or a society of groups distinctive in ethnic origin, cultural patterns, religion, or the like.
(11) "Prejudice" means an implied, preconceived, and unreasonable judgment or opinion, usually an unfavorable one marked by suspicion, fear, intolerance, or hatred.
(12) "Racism" means unequal or discriminatory treatment of, or attitudes towards, individuals or groups based on race.
(13) "Sexism" means unequal or discriminatory treatment of, or attitudes towards, individuals or groups based on gender.
(14) "Stereotype" means the belief that all the individuals of a certain group will be the same and behave in the same way.
A. Public schools shall include as part of curricular and program offerings appropriate instruction for developing knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of cultural groups in society.
B. The State Department of Education shall provide:
(1) Staff development and other forms of technical assistance to help with implementation of this chapter;
(2) Criteria, for use by local school systems in evaluating and selecting instructional materials and assessments for schools, which ensure that proper recognition is given to cultural groups:
(3) An annotated resource guide that:
(a) Assists local school systems in developing effective instruction, curricula, and staff development programs, and
(b) Is a synthesis of multicultural education resources identified; and
(4) Cross-referenced matches of multicultural goals with Maryland School Performance Program outcomes and curricular frameworks for all disciplines.
C. A multicultural focus in all State activities shall include assessments, publications, and curricular frameworks in each subject area.
A. The guidelines in §§B—D of this regulation have been developed to assist local school system personnel in the design, management, implementation, and evaluation of education that is multicultural in the context of the 5-year master plan and master plan annual update cycles. The guidelines are divided into three areas of curriculum, instruction, and staff development, each of which includes a goal statement and objectives.
(1) Goal. To provide Pre-K—12 curriculum, which enables students to demonstrate an understanding of and an appreciation for cultural groups in the United States as an integral part of education for a culturally pluralistic society. The curriculum shall enable students to apply these skills to fully participate in the democratic process of their community, State, nation, and world. The curriculum includes the following content:
(a) Emphasis on correcting the omissions and misrepresentations of African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, women, and individuals with disabilities;
(b) The history of cultural groups and their contributions in Maryland, in the United States, and in the world;
(c) Historic events, situations, conflicts, and interpretations from diverse perspectives;
(d) Political, social, and economic conditions which cultural groups have experienced and continue to experience in the United States; and
(e) As appropriate, issues of racism, sexism, bias, and prejudice as these affect the behavior and experience of individuals and groups.
(2) Goal. To provide Pre-K—12 curriculum, which develops the valuing of cultural groups in the United States as an integral part of education for a culturally pluralistic society. The curriculum shall provide opportunity for students to demonstrate the following attitudes and actions:
(a) Valuing one's heritage;
(b) Valuing the uniqueness of cultures other than one's own;
(c) Valuing the richness of cultural diversity and commonality;
(d) Respecting diverse cultural groups throughout the world;
(e) Awareness of and sensitivity to individual differences within various cultural groups; and
(f) Eliminating stereotypes related to race, ethnicity, region, religion, gender, socioeconomic status, age, and individuals with disabilities.
(1) Goal. To provide Pre-K—12 instruction which will enable students to develop an understanding of and appreciation for cultural groups as an integral part of education for a culturally pluralistic society.
(2) The instructional program shall:
(a) Promote a school climate that reflects the diversity of the community;
(b) Promote a school climate in which different cultural linguistic patterns are respected;
(c) Promote grouping of students to reflect cultural diversity;
(d) Ensure that a student may not be denied access to equally rigorous academic instruction on the basis of cultural background;
(e) Use instructional activities which recognize and appreciate students' cultural identities and learning styles;
(f) Address racism, sexism, bias, discrimination, and prejudice;
(g) Use organizations promoting cultural and ethnic understanding;
(h) Use instructional activities that promote an understanding of and a respect for a variety of ways of communicating, both verbal and nonverbal;
(i) Use instructional materials which reinforce the concept of the United States as a pluralistic society within a globally interdependent world while recognizing our common ground as a nation;
(j) Incorporate multicultural instructional materials in all subject areas; and
(k) Provide opportunities for students to analyze and evaluate social issues and propose solutions to contemporary social problems.
D. Staff Development.
(1) Goal. To include in staff development experiences that prepare school system personnel to design, manage, implement, and evaluate multicultural education.
(2) The experiences in §D(1) of this regulation include:
(a) Activities which involve professional and support staff in exploring attitudes and feelings about their own cultural identity;
(b) Activities to identify instructional strategies, techniques, and materials appropriate for education that is multicultural;
(c) Training in assessing the prior knowledge, attitudes, abilities, and learning styles of students from varied backgrounds in order to develop multicultural instructional programs;
(d) Training to recognize and correct stereotyping, discrimination, bias, and prejudice;
(e) Training for fostering greater intergroup understanding;
(f) Training to recognize and correct the omissions and misrepresentations of groups and individuals in curriculum and instruction;
(g) Training to recognize and correct inequitable participation in school activities by students and staff from different backgrounds; and
(h) Training to identify human resources for education that is multicultural.
.05 Criteria for Instructional Resources.
A. Goal. To provide instructional resources which assists students in demonstrating an understanding of and appreciation for cultural groups.
B. Selection of multicultural resources includes all of the following minimal criteria:
(1) Materials that avoid stereotyping, discrimination, bias, and prejudice;
(2) Materials that reflect the diverse experiences relating to cultural groups and individuals;
(3) Instructional materials in all content areas that represent society as multicultural; and
(4) Human resources to help students demonstrate an understanding of and respect for cultural diversity.
.06 Planning and Implementation.
A. Each local school system shall incorporate into the master plan and master plan annual updates information relating to the progress toward achieving the goals and guidelines set out in Regulations .03—.05 of this chapter.
B. The Department shall review each master plan or master plan update within established time lines to determine whether the plan or plan update complies with the requirements of Education Article, §5-401, Annotated Code of Maryland, the implementation guidelines issued by the Department, and the requirements of this chapter.
C. The State Superintendent shall report annually to the State Board the results of the reviews of the master plans and master plan updates.
.07 Tests and Assessments.
All tests and assessments administered by or through the Department shall include strategies and content that are multicultural in each subject area and reflect the student diversity and commonality factors described in Regulation .01B of this chapter.
.08 Monitoring and Reporting.
A. The State Superintendent of Schools shall designate staff to conduct monitoring to review, assess progress, and determine needs and deficiencies of the local boards of education in implementing the requirements of this chapter.
B. Beginning March 1, 2006 and every 3 years thereafter, the State Superintendent shall report the results of the Department monitoring to the State Board, to the Governor, and to the members of the General Assembly.
Effective date: July 29, 1970
Regulations .02—.04 adopted effective December 14, 1979 (6:25 Md. R. 1983)
Regulations .01—.03 amended, Regulation .04 repealed and new Regulation .04 adopted effective January 15, 1989 (15:27 Md. R. 3132)
Regulations .01—.04, Ethnic and Cultural Minorities, repealed effective November 8, 1993 (20:21 Md. R. 1656)
Regulations .01—.07, Education That is Multicultural, adopted effective November 8, 1993 (20:21 Md. R. 1656)
Regulation .01C adopted effective June 6, 1994 (21:11 Md. R. 952)
Regulation .02B amended effective November 7, 2005 (32:22 Md. R. 1757)
Regulation .03B amended effective November 7, 2005 (32:22 Md. R. 1757)
Regulation .04A amended effective November 7, 2005 (32:22 Md. R. 1757)
Regulation .05B amended effective November 7, 2005 (32:22 Md. R. 1757)
Regulation .05-1 adopted effective November 29, 1999 (26:24 Md. R. 1858)
Regulation .05-1 repealed effective July 21, 2003 (30:14 Md. R. 937)
Regulation .06 amended effective November 29, 1999 (26:24 Md. R. 1858)
Regulation .06 amended effective November 7, 2005 (32:22 Md. R. 1757)
Regulation .07 amended effective November 7, 2005 (32:22 Md. R. 1757)
Regulation .08 adopted effective November 7, 2005 (32:22 Md. R. 1757)