The CCPS Elementary Mathematics Curriculum standards define what students should understand and be able to do in their study of mathematics. Asking a student to understand something means asking a teacher to assess whether the student has understood it. But what does mathematical understanding look like? One hallmark of mathematical understanding is the ability to justify, in a way appropriate to the student’s mathematical maturity, why a particular mathematical statement is true or where a mathematical rule comes from. There is a world of difference between a student who can summon a mnemonic device to expand a product such as (a+b)(x+y) and a student who can explain where the mnemonic comes from. The student who can explain the rule understands the mathematics, and may have a better chance to succeed at a less familiar task, such as expanding (a+b+c)(x+y). Mathematical understanding and procedural skill are equally important, and both are emphasized in the CCPS Elementary Mathematics Curriculum.
CCPS Elementary Mathematics State Report Card
Elementary Basic Facts by Grade Level
To Master Basic Math Facts: Strategize, Then Memorize
Nothing may be more feared in the minds of young children and their parents than learning the basic math facts. Just hearing the times tables takes many of us back to our own childhoods, staring at a blank page and trying to remember the dreaded 9 x 8 = 72. The good news is that our own children should not have to suffer the same fear. A substantial amount of mathematics education research shows that children do not master their math facts through memorization alone. Instead, true mastery comes from being equipped with quick and effective strategies for finding the solution. By using these strategies, children will always have the mental tools needed to find the correct answer and the confidence to use them.
With a strategy-based approach to the basic math facts, children use what they already know to figure out what they don’t know. Rather than racking their brains to remember the answer to a basic math fact, they can simply find a “helping” fact and use it as a jumping- off point. For example, let’s say that your child knows the common fact 5 x 5 = 25. She can then add one more 5 to figure out that 6 x 5 = 30. Think of this as the “one more than” strategy. There are many such strategies that parents can teach their children in order to equip them with the tools they need to master all of their math facts. As a parent, remember that as long as your child can figure out an answer quickly in her head (in about 3 seconds or less), she has mastered the fact and can use it in meaningful ways as part of her daily life.
Strategy Focus in Kindergarten
- County on 1
- Count back 1
- Add zero
- Subtract zero
Kindergarten General Activities
Strategy Focus in First Grade
- Make ten
- Subtract from ten
- Count on 2
- Count back 2
Strategy Focus in Third Grade
- Skip counting
- Powers of 10
- Double double
- Add another set
- Double double double
Building on Foundation Facts
Building on Foundation Facts
Multiplication and Division
Phases of Learning
- Modeling Phase: Modeling and/or counting all or counting on to find the answer: For example, using fingers to help keep track of their counts to solve 5+7=?
- Reasoning Phase: Deriving answers using reasoning strategies based on known facts, such a solving 5+7 by thinking, “Five plus five equals ten, and two more will make twelve.”
- Efficient Phase: Mastery or efficient production of answers. For example, when asked, “What is 5 + 7?” a child might call out, “Twelve,” and explain, “I just knew it.”
Websites for Home
Visit Parents.com, Edutopia, and Numerosity in iTunes for some app ideas
Smart Fluency Assessment & Fun Practice | Math Facts Pro
Online Math Games – Free Math Games for Kids – Math Blaster
Free Addition Math Games - Multiplication.com
Marble Math - Learn Addition with Manipulatives • ABCya!
Common Core State Standards for Mathematics | Math Playground